Lithium Ion batteries were first discussed in the 1970’s with the first commercially available lithium ion battery released in 1991. They have quickly become the favourite choice for consumer electronics due to their power density, cost, safety and ability to discharge and charge without a memory effect.
Lithium ion batteries are well suited in Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS), which need to respond quickly to calls to discharge. For example in frequency response roles for the National Grid.
Lithium ion energy storage systems have the following Pros and Cons:
High energy density
Ability to fully discharge without affecting longevity of battery
Quick charge and discharge potential
Long levels of cycles
High efficiency (energy discharged versus energy required to charge)
Higher initial cost for batteries
Battery management system required to prevent under / over voltage
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